Group Members


Sam A.
Brendon K.
Derrek K.
Taylor P.
Renee B.
Lana M.
Jamie F.
Jonathan S.
Garrett N.



*For each station three separate samples were taken. And the test was preformed three times. The three results were then averaged together.

*The water at Cloe Lake is always changing. These test results are only for the samples that were taken at one time. So the test results would vary.



Procedures and Tests


Water Turbidity Test

First we took 25 ml of distilled water and a container full of 25 ml of creek water. There was a black dot at the bottom of each container. In the container full of creek water the black dot was fuzzy but visible. In the distilled water the black dot was very visible. The creek water was yellowish but clear. Reagent was added to the distilled water until both became equally as cloudy. .5 ml of reagent was added at a time until the two containers were equal. After adding each .5 ml of reagent the solution was stirred. After 5 droppers of .5 ml of reagent the water in both containers were about the same. Using the chart provided in the Turbidity kit, the turbidity was determined to be an average of 80 JTU.

Turbidity is the measure of relative clarity of a liquid. Turbidity depends on the amount of muddiness/cloudiness in water. The stirring up of sediments usually causes this. Turbidity can be measured in Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU). Our results showed that the turbidity of Jackson’s Run was 80 JTU’s. Turbidity levels can be affected by human interference such as construction. It can also be affected by storm water runoff pollution. In water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs, high turbidity levels can reduce the amount of light reaching lower depths, which can inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and consequently affect species that are dependent on them, such as fish. Because of the higher turbidity level the water becomes warmer. Warm water holds less oxygen than cold water. Therefore it is harder for most forms aquatic life to survive. Large particles in the water can also clog fish gills, decrease resistance to disease, and prevent egg and larval development. It can also suffocate newly hatched insect larvae, such as the mayfly nymph who was discovered to exist in Jackson’s Run. Because insect larvae, fish, and other life was found to exist in the water, we can assume that the water turbidity level of 80 JTU’s is able to maintain life.


Total Hardness Test

First a graduated cylinder was filled with 12.9 ml of creek water. Then 5 drops of the hardness reagent #5 was added to the sample. This turned the sample, which was originally a muddy brown color, pink. Next a tablet of the hardness reagent #6 was added to the now pink solution. This reagent turned the pink solution red. Through out the color changes the water was still clear. Lastly hardness reagent #7 was added to the solution. This turned the sample blue. We determined the measurements by using a titration tube. In the end the about of water hardness was 108.3 ppm.

Hardness is a measure of how much magnesium and calcium are in the water. The main thing this affects is the different types of aquatic life that can live in the stream. With hardness in the stream a lot of animals with external skeletons and shells will be present because of the calcium in the water.

Dissolved Oxygen Test

First a sample of water was retrieved from Jackson’s Run. Next 8 drops of Manganous Sulfate solution was added to the sample along with 8 drops of Alkaline Potassium Iodide Acid. Next the container was capped and mixed. After this the precipitate formed needed time to settle at the bottom. After it was settled 1 gram of Sulfuric Acid was mix into the solution until the reagent and the precipitate dissolved. Next using the titration tube was filled with Sodium Thiosulfate. Then the chemical was mixed into the sample and the sample turned pale yellow. When the solution was pale yellow 8 drops of starch was added. As soon as the starch was added the solution immediately turned blue-ish grey/black. Next Thiosulfate was added to the blue-ish grey/black mixture. This was dispensed from the titration tube while gently swirling the sample. The mixture turned black after a few moments. The final result for the water sample was 10.7 ppm.

The Dissolved Oxygen Test measures the amount of gaseous oxygen in the water. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air, by aeration (rapid movement of the water), and as a waste product of photosynthesis. The water in Jackson’s Run most likely absorbs through aeration because the water most too quickly to support a lot of aquatic plant life. Our results for the dissolved oxygen tests showed the there was 10.7 ppm (parts per million) of oxygen in the sample from Jackson’s run. Dissolved oxygen test normally range from 0-18 ppm, although most rivers and streams require a minimum of 5 ppm to support a diverse aquatic life. This means that 10.7 ppm is a normal healthy number for the dissolved oxygen test. This number can be affected by the temperature of the water since water temperature is directly related to the amount of oxygen present, the warmer the water the lower the oxygen count. If oxygen levels in Jackson's Run dropped lower than 5 ppm aquatic life is put under stress. If the oxygen remained low for even a few hours the number of fish killed would be huge. Excess oxygen in the water can also be harmful to aquatic life. Fish in waters containing excessive dissolved gases may suffer from "gas bubble disease"; however, this is a very rare occurrence. The oxygen bubbles block the flow of blood through blood vessels causing death. External bubbles can also occur and be seen on fins, skin and other tissue.


Iron Test

1.Rinse test tube with sample water. Fill to 5mL line.
2. Add 5 drops of Iron Reagent #1. Cap and mix.
3. Use the .05g spoon to add one level measure of Iron Reagent #2. Cap and shake until dissolved. Wait 3 minutes.
4. Insert tube into Iron Comparator. Match sample color to a color standard. Record as ppm Iron.
Result: > .5ppm

The average amount of iron in a river is .5ppm. Our results showed that Cloe Lake has an average of >.167. The effects of iron in water ecosystems are indirect. The combined direct and indirect effects of iron contamination can lead to a decrease in biodiversity, which is very important in maintaining a watershed.

pH Test

First fill the tube to the 5ml line with the sample water. Then hold the dropper bottle of indicator solution vertically and add 10 drops of the solution. Mix the sample water and the solution. Insert the tube into the Octet Comparator (provided in the testing kit) and match your sample waters color to a color standard and record the pH. The sample water that was tested at Cloe was 7.

A good pH is considered to be somewhere between 6 and 8. Some aquatic life can only live in certain levels of pH so the pH can affect what kinds of life are in the stream or lake. Technically 7 is completely pure water which is good but, i highly doubt that that measure is completely accurate. From this test the water is looking pretty healthy because it is between those two numbers(6-8).

Nitrate Test

1. Fill a test tube to the 5mL lone with the water sample.
2. Add one Nitrate #1 Tablet.
3. Cap and mix until tablet disintegrates.
4. Add one Nitrate #2 CTA Tablet.
5. Cap and mix until tablet disintegrates.
6. Wait 5 minutes.
7. Insert Nitrate Nitrogen Octa-Slide Bar into the Octa-Slide Viewer.
8. Insert test tube into Octa-Slide Viewer.
9. Match sample color to a color standard. Record as ppm Nitrate Nitrogen.
Result: 1ppm

Nitrogen is a nutrient that is necessary for growth in aquatic organisms. Nitrate test detects nitrogen in the form of nitrates. An increase in nitrates can increase the growth of algae. Algae can rob the water of oxygen, which is essential for aquatic life to exist. Nitrates can not only come from human and animal waste, but also fertilizer from crops and lawns.

Alkalinity Test

1. Fill a test tube to the 5 mL line with sample water
2. Add 1 BCGER tablet to the water
3. Shake till the tablet dissolves. The water should turn a greenish blue.
4. Drop Titration Reagent B swirling the water after every drop. The water should become clear. Stop when you notice no change in the water.
Result 85ppm
Average result 75ppm

Alkalinity refers to the ability to neutralize acids. Alkalinity is related to hardness because alkalinity comes from limestone, which is made of CaCO3. Alkalinity tests measure how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a change in pH levels. Our result for this test was 75ppm. The alkalinity level is normal for Cloe Lake.


Overall Results

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